G. Carducci, C. Casale, P. Russo, F. Marulo

Authors email address

G. Carducci:
C. Casale:
P. Russo:
F. Marulo:


Traditional methods of measuring Sound Transmission Loss (SIL) of acoustic materials and treaiments are lime-consuming and expensive. To overcome this limitation, normal incidence Transmission Loss measurement technique using an impedance tube has been developed. This paper presents an effort made to design and build a cost-effective impedance tube as per the ASTM E2611 – 09. Standardized measurement uses a plane wave tube instrumented with four microphones and a termination consisting of an adaptable acoustic load. The mathematical formulation is based on the transfer Matrix representation (IM method). In order to validate the proposed model design, a numerical, experimental and theoretical correlation is presented. The numerical model is obtained using the Finite Element Method (FEM).

Therefore, the lest jacity operation has proved reliable.


Sound Transmission Loss, 4-microphones impedance tube, Transfer Matrix method, finite element method.



  1. 1.
    Maccarrone M, Bab I, Bíró T, et al. Endocannabinoid signaling at the periphery: 50 years after THC. Trends in pharmacological sciences. 2015;36(5):277-296.
  2. 2.
    Bab I, Zimmer A. Cannabinoid receptors and the regulation of bone mass. British journal of pharmacology. 2008;153(2):182-188.
  3. 3.
    Deis S, Srivastava RK, de Azua IR, et al. Age-related regulation of bone formation by the sympathetic cannabinoid CB1 receptor. Bone. 2018;108:34-42.
  4. 4.
    Rossi F, Tortora C, Punzo F, et al. The endocannabinoid/endovanilloid system in bone: from osteoporosis to osteosarcoma. International journal of molecular sciences. 2019;20(8):1919.
  5. 5.
    Idris AI, Sophocleous A, Landao-Bassonga E, Van’t Hof RJ, Ralston SH. Regulation of bone mass, osteoclast function, and ovariectomy-induced bone loss by the type 2 cannabinoid receptor. Endocrinology. 2008;149(11):5619-5626.
  6. 6.
    Idris AI, van’t Hof RJ, Greig IR, et al. Regulation of bone mass, bone loss and osteoclast activity by cannabinoid receptors. Nature medicine. 2005;11(7):774-779.
  7. 7.
    Sophocleous A, Marino S, Kabir D, Ralston SH, Idris AI. Combined deficiency of the Cnr1 and Cnr2 receptors protects against age‐related bone loss by osteoclast inhibition. Aging Cell. 2017;16(5):1051-1061.
  8. 8.
    Battista N, Di Tommaso M, Norfini A, et al. Altered anandamide metabolism in microgravity: the “RESLEM” experiment. ISGP & ESA Life Sciences. Published online 2019:256.
  9. 9.
    Choukèr A, Kaufmann I, Kreth S, et al. Motion sickness, stress and the endocannabinoid system. PloS one. 2010;5(5):e10752.
  10. 10.
    Strewe C, Feuerecker M, Nichiporuk I, et al. Effects of parabolic flight and spaceflight on the endocannabinoid system in humans. Reviews in the Neurosciences. 2012;23(5-6):673-680.
  11. 11.
    Arianna C, Eliana C, Flavio A, et al. Rapid Rapamycin-only induced osteogenic differentiation of blood-derived stem cells and their adhesion to natural and artificial scaffolds. Stem Cells International. 2017;2017.
  12. 12.
    Gambacurta A, Merlini G, Ruggiero C, et al. Human osteogenic differentiation in Space: proteomic and epigenetic clues to better understand osteoporosis. Scientific reports. 2019;9(1):8343.

About this paper

Cite this paper